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黃河下游高效輸沙洪水調控指標研究
 申冠卿,張原鋒,張敏
(黃河水利科學研究院,河南 鄭州 450003)
Research on Regulation Indices of Floods for High Efficient Sediment Transport in the Lower Yellow River
 SHEN Guanqing, ZHANG Yuanfeng, ZHANG Min
(Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Zhengzhou 450003, China)

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人民黃河
  2019,Vol. 41(9): 50
  水文泥沙
黃河下游高效輸沙洪水調控指標研究
 申冠卿,張原鋒,張敏
(黃河水利科學研究院,河南 鄭州 450003))
doi:
Research on Regulation Indices of Floods for High Efficient Sediment Transport in the Lower Yellow River
 SHEN Guanqing, ZHANG Yuanfeng, ZHANG Min
(Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Zhengzhou 450003, China)
全文: PDF (1.60MB)
摘要: 黃河下游河道沖淤變化主要取決于水沙條件,即隨流量大小和含沙量高低而變化,含沙量越低則泥沙淤積比越小、單位輸沙水量越大,反之,含沙量越高則泥沙淤積比越大、單位輸沙水量越小。在黃河水少沙多、水資源日趨緊缺和供需矛盾日益突出的現實條件下,為兼顧河道少淤和減少輸沙水量,可通過水庫調度,優化水沙搭配、塑造高效輸沙洪水。以黃河下游實測場次洪水為基礎,建立洪水期下游河道泥沙淤積比與水沙因子間的響應關系,求得流量為4 000 m3/s時沖淤臨界含沙量約為50 kg/m3;基于黃河下游河道洪水泥沙輸移規律,以維持黃河下游河道基本不淤積為約束條件,分析單位輸沙水量隨含沙量的變化情況,提出了高效輸沙洪水泥沙優化配置指標,即洪水流量為4 000 m3/s、河道淤積比為0~15%時,相應的高效輸沙洪水含沙量配置區間為50~75 kg/m3。
關鍵詞:
Abstract: Erosion and deposition is depended mainly on oncoming water and sediment in the Lower Yellow River (LYR). It varies with changes of flow discharge and sediment concentration. The less sediment concentration is, the smaller ratio of deposition to oncoming sediment load is, and the larger water volume per unit for sediment transport will be. On the contrary, the higher sediment concentration is, the greater ratio and the less water volume will be. Under a circumstance of less water and more sediment, increasing shortage of water resources and contradiction between supply and demand, optimizing matches of oncoming flow and sediment and modeling floods of high efficient sediment transport can be carried out by reservoir regulation to reduce deposition and water volume for sediment transport. Based on typical floods of high efficient sediment transport in LYR, relationship between the ratio and water and sediment factors was established. A critical sediment concentration for erosion and deposition corresponding to discharge of 4,000 m3/s was 50 kg/m3. On the basis of flood and sediment transport pattern in the LYR, this paper analyzed the changes of water volumes per unit for sediment transport with changing of sediment concentration under restriction that the river channel maintained basically no deposition. Then, optimizing indices of flow and sediment for high efficient sediment transport were flood discharge of 4,000 m3/s, ratio of deposition to incoming sediment load of 0-15% and corresponding sediment concentration range from 50 to 75 kg/m3.
Key words: equilibrium sediment transport; water volume demand for sediment transport; high efficient sediment transport flood; regulation indices; regulation of water and sediment; Lower Yellow River
收稿日期:
基金資助: 國家重點研發計劃項目(2017YFC0405505)
作者簡介: 申冠卿(1964—),男,河南伊川人,教授級高級工程師,主要從事河床演變方面的研究工作
江苏7位数开奖历史